The Electoral College was created as a compromise during the drafting of the United States Constitution in 1787.
The framers of the Constitution sought to establish a system for electing the President that would balance various competing interests and concerns.
Balance of power between large and small states:
The Electoral College was designed to give smaller states a voice in the election process, preventing the domination of the presidency by large, populous states.
Allocating electoral votes based on the number of congressional representatives (including both House and Senate seats) helps to maintain this balance.
Separation of powers:
The framers sought to create a system that would prevent the concentration of power in any single branch of government.
By having a separate body (the Electoral College) responsible for electing the President, the framers aimed to reduce the risk of collusion or undue influence between the executive and legislative branches.
Concerns about direct democracy:
Many of the framers were wary of direct democracy, fearing that it could lead to mob rule or demagoguery.
The Electoral College was seen as a buffer against the passions of the populace, allowing for a more deliberate and informed decision-making process in selecting the President.
In the late 18th century, communication and transportation were slow and inefficient compared to today.
The framers were concerned that voters would not have enough information about candidates from other states, making it difficult to make informed choices.
The Electoral College was intended to alleviate this concern by having a group of informed electors make the final decision.
While the Electoral College has evolved over time and some of its original justifications may no longer be as relevant, these factors help explain why it was created in the first place.